Epidemiology of Invasive Mycoses in North America

The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiro…

The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Aspergillus spp. (although the list of potential patho- gens is ever expanding); while the most commonly encountered endemic mycoses are due to Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis/posadasii, and Blastomyces dermatitidis. This review discusses the epide- miologic profiles of these invasive mycoses in North America, as well as risk factors for infection, and the pathogens’ antifungal susceptibility.

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