Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Clinical Update

Aspergillus spp may cause a variety of pulmonary diseases, depending on immune status and the presence of underlying lung disease. These mani- festations range from invasive pulmonary aspergil- losis in severely immunocompromised patients, to chronic necrotizing aspergillosis in patients with chronic lung disease and/or mildly compromised immune sy…

Aspergillus spp may cause a variety of pulmonary diseases, depending on immune status and the presence of underlying lung disease. These mani- festations range from invasive pulmonary aspergil- losis in severely immunocompromised patients, to chronic necrotizing aspergillosis in patients with chronic lung disease and/or mildly compromised immune systems. Aspergilloma is mainly seen in patients with cavitary lung disease, while allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is described in patients with hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigens. Recent major advances in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary aspergillosis include the introduction of non-invasive tests, and the development of new antifungal agents, such as azoles and echincandins, that significantly affect the management and outcome of patients with pulmo- nary aspergillosis. This review provides a clinical update on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the major syndromes associated with pulmonary aspergillosis.

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